NASA, NOAA, MetOffice Climate Data Fabrication

Data Sources: see the data hyperlinks in the table below. This data was provided and altered courtesy of NASA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the UK MetOffice. Crucially, the IPCC used these fabricated temperature indices as key evidence for anthropogenic global warming (pages 247-249)[i] and in its forecast inaccuracy analysis (pages 61-63, 87, 131, see details below) in its Fifth Assessment Report.[ii]

Figure legend: Alterations were made to the global temperature indices by NASA, NOAA, and the MetOffice which are revealed by subtracting the older version from the current annual surface temperature anomaly index version. Annual differences were averaged into pre-/post-1970 periods and divided by the older version average pre-/post-1970 temperature anomalies before converting to percentages. A positive percentage before 1970 means an increased cooling, while a positive percentage after 1970 means increased warming. A negative percentage before 1970 means a reduced cooling, while a negative percentage after 1970 means reduced warming. In most cases, the reference period means have been altered, instead of being zero. Two NASA GHCN temperature indices for Greenland were omitted from the above figure because the percentage changes exceeded 500-700% since July 2019. Graph definitions: GMST; global mean surface temperature. L&O; land and ocean. NHT; Northern Hemisphere temperature. GISTemp; GISS Surface Temperature (Goddard Institute for Space Studies). V; version.

See US Government Gagging Orders. Does the UK government have the same gagging orders for the MetOffice? What about the United Nations and IPCC – do they have gagging orders?

The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) climate change key-risk assessment was artificially restricted to theoretical anthropogenic global warming risks (pages 11 and 59[i]) by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Article 2 (i.e., pages 7 and 9[ii]). Under this Article 2 constraint, the IPCC delayed the prospect of a new ice age by an unprecedented 50,000 years (30,000 years in AR4—page 85[iii]) and any glaciation during the next 1,000 years while assuming the last ice age ended “about 10,000 years ago” (pages 124-25, 387[iv]). These ice age boundary assumptions have major implications for our perception of 21st-century climate change risks.

With the Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO) occurring 8 and 10.5 millennia ago in Greenland and Antarctica respectively and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, lowest glacial cycle temperature) occurring approximately 17.5 millennia ago in Greenland (average of nine sites[v]) and 18-19 millennia ago in Antarctica (Dome Fuji,[vi] Antarctic Dome-C,[vii] Vostok[viii]) it makes it impossible for the last ice to have ended “about 10,000 years ago”. Further corroborating this, by 10,000 years ago the global sea level had already risen 80% and the temperature 91% of their total Holocene interglacial rise (Bintanja et al.[ix]). Collectively, this polar ice core data and prior cited literature refute the IPCC’s ice age end assumption.

The literature confirms the Arctic HCO period occurred from 8-5 millennia ago with temperatures being 2-4°C higher than today.[x],[xi],[xii] In Antarctica, the HCO period took place from 11.5-9 millennia ago, with a secondary optimum 8-5 millennia ago.[xiii] The post-HCO temperature decline in Greenland paralleled a 40-50 Watt/m2 decline in precession modified solar insolation (60-65°N),[xiv],[xv],[xvi],[xvii],[xviii] and five millennia of “Neoglacial advances”[xix] that peaked during the 17th-19th centuries.[xx] In the Arctic, abrupt-periodic Neoglacial advances started about five millennia ago with northeast Greenland ice-locked during summer by three millennia ago,[xxi],[xxii] and similarly in Antarctica.[xxiii],[xxiv],[xxv],[xxvi],[xxvii],[xxviii],[xxix]

There are statistical implications in delaying an ice age inception by a theoretical 30,000-50,000 years, which were not addressed by the IPCC or in peer-review. The inter-climate optimum interval in Antarctica Dome-C from the 10.5Kyr HCO to the preceding climate optimum was 118.1Kyr (Jouzel et al. dataset[xxx]), and was 122.7Kyr with the global climate data from the 2.1Kyr HCO (Bintanja et al. dataset.[xxxi]). These inter-climate optimum intervals were already the largest in 800,000 and three million years respectively. By delaying the next ice age by 50,000 years the IPCC turned a non-significant outlier into an extreme outlier, thus raising major questions about its non-peer-reviewed mini-theory.

Given these ice age boundary assumptions the IPCC then specifically dismissed all 21st-century global cooling-glaciation risks, including those by climate-forcing volcanism, abrupt climate change, and the cooling impact of this grand solar minimum (i.e., secular changes in solar activity) (pages 20, 24, 70-71, 88, 393, 1007-1009, and 1115).[xxxii] This UNFCCC Article 2 constrained key-risk assessment resulted in the elimination of all potential cooling contestation to its four Representative Concentration Pathway emission-linked temperature predictions for the 21st century. This is problematic because it obscures catastrophic global cooling-glaciation risks predicted by solar activity and other experts who predict a 21st-century return to a Little Ice Age-like cold climate due to the sun having entered a grand solar minimum period of activity.[xxxiii],[xxxiv],[xxxv],[xxxvi],[xxxvii],[xxxviii]

Furthermore, it is impossible to know what happened to the Greenland, Northern Hemisphere, and global temperatures between the RPM and 2019 due to major alterations made by NASA, NOAA, and the MetOffice to the surface temperature indices(REF). These alterations largely had the effect of artificially increasing the post-1970 warming rates and the 2019 peak temperature rankings, as well as altering the RPM values. Unfortunately, this renders these widely used temperature indices unsuitable for policy-sensitive decision making.

Crucially, the IPCC used these modified temperature indices as key evidence for anthropogenic global warming (pages 247-249)[xxxix] and in its forecast inaccuracy analysis (pages 61-63, 87, 131).[xl] This inaccuracy analysis showed the IPCC-promoted computer models over-forecasted the actual global mean surface temperature (GMST) in 111 of 114 simulations (97.4%, >2 standard deviations), while 100% missed the climate hiatus (pages 61-63)[xli] during a period (1998-2012) when atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) increased 7.4%,[xlii] and the CO2 rise lagged the temperature increase by 9-12 months.[xliii] This data indicates the IPCC’s radiative forcing theory and models are unable to accurately predict the GMST and that the CO2 rise lagged the temperature rise.

Therefore, major questions are raised about the validity of the IPCC’s Article 1 and 2 constrained climate change key-risk assessment that leaves catastrophic 21st-century global cooling-glaciation risks unmitigated.

Climate Data Fabrication Links New Version Old Version
HadCRUT 4.6 (2020) minus V3 (2014) http://bit.ly/2Kdu48E http://bit.ly/2RFtXpC
HadCRUT.4.6 NHT (2020) minus V4.0 (2010) http://bit.ly/2QC1q6e https://bit.ly/2ZY4ZHl
CRUTEM4 Global Land °C (2020) minus CRUTEM1 (2002) https://bit.ly/30pceaw https://bit.ly/3mHuPZW
CRUTEM4 NHT Land °C (2020) minus CRUTEM1 (2002) https://bit.ly/3hOVzEg https://bit.ly/2HmpSFK
NOAA Global L&O V5 (07/2020) minus V4 (07/2019) https://bit.ly/35XN8US https://bit.ly/32SB31j
NOAA NHTemp (0-90N) L&O V5 (07/2020) minus V4 (07/2019) https://bit.ly/2Hdgnse https://bit.ly/32Ok7Zy
NOAA NHTemp L&O (60-90N) V5 (07/2020) minus V4 (07/2019) https://bit.ly/2ElJt7M https://bit.ly/2RMkz4j
NASA GISTemp. GHCN V4 (09/2020) minus V3 (07/2019) https://go.nasa.gov/3avIKw8 https://go.nasa.gov/2OEq2LE
NASA GISTemp. V4 (07/2020) minus V2 (2000) https://go.nasa.gov/3avIKw8 https://go.nasa.gov/2KFY3IZ
NASA GISTemp. V4 (07/2020) minus V1 (07/1997) https://go.nasa.gov/3avIKw8 https://go.nasa.gov/2KFY3IZ
NASA GHCN L&O. V4 (07/2020) minus V3 (07/2019) https://go.nasa.gov/2HeKT52 https://go.nasa.gov/3kAnvNQ
Carlton B. Brown @iceagereentry, https://grandsolarminimum.com, https://iceageearth.com

 

References:

[i]       IPCC, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1132 pages.

[ii]      https://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/application/pdf/conveng.pdf

[iii]     IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pages.

[iv]     IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pages.

[v]      C. Buizert, B.A. Keisling, J.E. Box, F. He, A.E. Carlson, G. Sinclair, R.M. DeConto. 2018. Greenland-Wide Seasonal Temperatures During the Last Deglaciation. Geophysical Research Letters. doi: 10.1002/2017GL075601. Data: Greenland 22,000 Year Seasonal Temperature Reconstructions. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/23430.

[vi]     R.V. Uemura et al., 2012, “Ranges of moisture-source temperature estimated from Antarctic ice cores stable isotope records over glacial-interglacial cycles.” Climate of the Past, 8, 1109-1125. doi: 10.5194/cp-8-1109-2012. National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. Dome Fuji 360KYr Stable Isotope Data and Temperature Reconstruction. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/13121. Downloaded 05/05/2018.

[vii]    J. V. Jouzel et al., 2007, “Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years.” Science, Volume 317, No. 5839, 793-797, 10 August 2007. National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. EPICA Dome C – 800KYr Deuterium Data and Temperature Estimates. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/6080. Download data: Downloaded 08/02/2016.

[viii]   Lorius, C., J. Jouzel, C. Ritz, L. Merlivat, N.I. Barkov, Y.S. Korotkevitch, and V.M. Kotlyakov. 1985. A 150,000-year climatic record from Antarctic ice. Nature 316:591-596. Vostok – Deuterium Data and Temperature Reconstruction. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/2426.

[ix]     R. Bintanja and R.S.W. van de Wal, “North American ice-sheet dynamics and the onset of 100,000-year glacial cycles.” Nature, Volume 454, 869-872, 14 August 2008. doi:10.1038/nature07158. National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. Global 3Ma Temperature, Sea Level, and Ice Volume Reconstructions. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/11933.

[x]     Nicolaj K. Larsen et al., “The response of the southern Greenland ice sheet to the Holocene thermal maximum.” Geology ; 43 (4): 291–294. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/G36476.1.

[xi]     D.S. Kaufman et al., “Holocene thermal maximum in the western Arctic (0–1800W).” Quaternary Science Reviews 23 (2004) 529–560.

[xii]    J.P. Briner et al., “Holocene climate change in Arctic Canada and Greenland.” Quaternary Science Reviews (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.02.010.

[xiii]   Ó. Ingólfsson et al., 1998, “Antarctic glacial history since the Last Glacial Maximum: An overview of the record on land. “Antarctic Science, 10(3), 326-344. doi:10.1017/S095410209800039X.

[xiv]   H. Wanner et al., “Structure and origin of Holocene cold events.” Quaternary Science Reviews (2011), doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.07.010.

[xv]    D.S. Kaufman et al., “Holocene thermal maximum in the western Arctic (0–180°W).” Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 23, Issues 5–6, 2004, 529-560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.09.007.

[xvi]   I. Borzenkova et al., 2015. Climate Change During the Holocene (Past 12,000 Years). In: The BACC II Author Team (eds) Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Regional Climate Studies. Springer.

[xvii] G.H. Miller et al., 2012, “Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks.” Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L02708, doi:10.1029/2011GL050168.

[xviii]      Y. Zhong et al., “Centennial-scale climate change from decadally-paced explosive volcanism: a coupled sea ice-ocean mechanism.” Climate Dynamics (2011) 37: 2373. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0967-z.

[xix] Olga N. Solomina, Raymond S. Bradley, Dominic A. Hodgson, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Vincent Jomelli, Andrew N. Mackintosh, Atle Nesje, Lewis A. Owen, Heinz Wanner, Gregory C. Wiles, Nicolas E. Young, (2015). Holocene glacier fluctuations. Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 111, 2015, Pages 9-34, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.11.018.

[xx]    O.N. Solomina et al., 2016, “Glacier fluctuations during the past 2000 years.” Quaternary Science Reviews, 149, 61-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.04.008.

[xxi]   Leonid Polyak et al., “History of sea ice in the Arctic.” Quaternary Science Reviews 29 (2010) 1757–1778, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.02.010.

[xxii] N. L. Balascio et al., “Glacier response to North Atlantic climate variability during the Holocene.” Climate of the Past, 11, 1587-1598, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-11-1587-2015, 2015.

[xxiii]      Ingólfsson, Ó, Hjort, C., Berkman, P., Björck, S., Colhoun, E., Goodwin, I., . . . Prentice, M. (1998). Antarctic glacial history since the Last Glacial Maximum: An overview of the record on land. Antarctic Science, 10(3), 326-344. doi:10.1017/S095410209800039X.

[xxiv] Andrew J. Christ, Manique Talaia-Murray, Natalie Elking, Eugene W. Domack, Amy Leventer, Caroline Lavoie, Stefanie Brachfeld, Kyu-Cheul Yoo, Robert Gilbert, Sun-Mi Jeong, Stephen Petrushak, Julia Wellner, the LARISSA Group; Late Holocene glacial advance and ice shelf growth in Barilari Bay, Graham Land, west Antarctic Peninsula. GSA Bulletin ; 127 (1-2): 297–315. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/B31035.1

[xxv]   The RAISED Consortium1, Michael J. Bentley et al. “A community-based geological reconstruction of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglaciation since the Last Glacial Maximum.” Quaternary Science Reviews. Volume 100, 15 September 2014, 1-9.

[xxvi] M. Frezzotti1 et al., “A synthesis of the Antarctic surface mass balance during the last 800 years.” The Cryosphere, 7, 303–319, 2013. www.the-cryosphere.net/7/303/2013/doi:10.5194/tc-7-303-2013.

[xxvii]    Domack E, Leventer A, Dunbar R, Taylor F, Brachfeld S, Sjunneskog C. Chronology of the Palmer Deep site, Antarctic Peninsula: a Holocene palaeoenvironmental reference for the circum-Antarctic. The Holocene. 2001;11(1):1-9. doi:10.1191/095968301673881493.

[xxviii]    Ólafur Ingólfsson, Christian Hjort, Ole Humlum “Glacial and Climate History of the Antarctic Peninsula since the Last Glacial Maximum,” Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 35(2), 175-186, (1 May 2003).

[xxix] F Taylor, J Whitehead, E Domack. Holocene paleoclimate change in the Antarctic Peninsula: evidence from the diatom, sedimentary and geochemical record, Marine Micropaleontology, Volume 41, Issues 1–2, 2001, Pages 25-43, ISSN 0377-8398, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8398(00)00049-9.

[xxx]   J. V. Jouzel et al., 2007, “Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years.” Science, Volume 317, No. 5839, 793-797, 10 August 2007. National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. EPICA Dome C – 800KYr Deuterium Data and Temperature Estimates. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/6080. Download data: Downloaded 08/02/2016.

[xxxi] R. Bintanja and R.S.W. van de Wal, “North American ice-sheet dynamics and the onset of 100,000-year glacial cycles.” Nature, Volume 454, 869-872, 14 August 2008. doi:10.1038/nature07158. National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. Global 3Ma Temperature, Sea Level, and Ice Volume Reconstructions. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/11933.

[xxxii]     IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pages.

[xxxiii]    N. Scafetta, “Multi-scale harmonic model for solar and climate cyclical variation throughout the Holocene based on Jupiter-Saturn tidal frequencies plus the 11-year solar dynamo cycle.” Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics (2012). doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2012.02.016.

[xxxiv]    Theodor Landscheidt, “New Little Ice Age Instead of Global Warming? Energy & Environment. 2003.” Volume 14, Issue 2, 327–350. https://doi.org/10.1260/095830503765184646.

[xxxv]     R.J. Salvador, “A mathematical model of the sunspot cycle for the past 1000 years,” Pattern Recognition Physics, 1, 117-122, doi:10.5194/prp-1-117-2013, 2013.

[xxxvi]    Nils-Axel Mörner, “Solar Minima, Earth’s rotation and Little Ice Ages in the past and in the future. The North Atlantic–European case.” Global and Planetary Change 72 (2010) 282–293. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.01.004.

[xxxvii]   Jan-Erik Solheim, https://www.mwenb.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Blog-Jan-Erik-Solheim-def.pdf. Referred from http://www.climatedialogue.org/what-will-happen-during-a-new-maunder-minimum/.

[xxxviii] Habibullo Abdussamatov, “Current Long-Term Negative Average Annual Energy Balance of the Earth Leads to the New Little Ice age.” Thermal Science. 2015 Supplement, Volume 19, S279-S288.

[xxxix]    IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

[xl]     IPCC, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pages.

[xli]    IPCC, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pages.

[xlii]   Dr. Pieter Tans, NOAA/GML (www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/) and Dr. Ralph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/). ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/products/trends/co2/co2_mm_mlo.txt

[xliii] Ole Humlum et al., “The phase relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperature.” Global and Planetary Change. Volume 100, January 2013, 51-69.

[i]       IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

[ii]      IPCC, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pages.

[i]          IPCC, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1132 pages.

[ii]      https://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/application/pdf/conveng.pdf

[iii]      IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pages.

[iv]      IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pages.

[v]       C. Buizert, B.A. Keisling, J.E. Box, F. He, A.E. Carlson, G. Sinclair, R.M. DeConto. 2018. Greenland-Wide Seasonal Temperatures During the Last Deglaciation. Geophysical Research Letters. doi: 10.1002/2017GL075601. Data: Greenland 22,000 Year Seasonal Temperature Reconstructions. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/23430.

[vi]      R.V. Uemura et al., 2012, “Ranges of moisture-source temperature estimated from Antarctic ice cores stable isotope records over glacial-interglacial cycles.” Climate of the Past, 8, 1109-1125. doi: 10.5194/cp-8-1109-2012. National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. Dome Fuji 360KYr Stable Isotope Data and Temperature Reconstruction. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/13121. Downloaded 05/05/2018.

[vii]     J. V. Jouzel et al., 2007, “Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years.” Science, Volume 317, No. 5839, 793-797, 10 August 2007. National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. EPICA Dome C – 800KYr Deuterium Data and Temperature Estimates. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/6080. Download data: Downloaded 08/02/2016.

[viii]     Lorius, C., J. Jouzel, C. Ritz, L. Merlivat, N.I. Barkov, Y.S. Korotkevitch, and V.M. Kotlyakov. 1985. A 150,000-year climatic record from Antarctic ice. Nature 316:591-596. Vostok – Deuterium Data and Temperature Reconstruction. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/2426.

[ix]         R. Bintanja and R.S.W. van de Wal, “North American ice-sheet dynamics and the onset of 100,000-year glacial cycles.” Nature, Volume 454, 869-872, 14 August 2008. doi:10.1038/nature07158. National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. Global 3Ma Temperature, Sea Level, and Ice Volume Reconstructions. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/11933.

[x]          IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pages.

[xi]      Caini, S., Spreeuwenberg, P., Donker, G., Korevaar, J., Paget, J. Climatic factors and long-term trends of influenza-like illness rates in The Netherlands, 1970–2016. Environmental Research: 2018 Nov;167:307-313. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.07.035. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

[xii]      IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

[xiii]     IPCC, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pages.

[xiv]     IPCC, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pages.

[xv]      Dr. Pieter Tans, NOAA/GML (www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/) and Dr. Ralph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/). ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/products/trends/co2/co2_mm_mlo.txt

[xvi]     Ole Humlum et al., “The phase relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperature.” Global and Planetary Change. Volume 100, January 2013, 51-69.

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